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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File number 1-4982
 PARKER-HANNIFIN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ohio34-0451060
(State or other jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
6035 Parkland Boulevard,Cleveland,Ohio44124-4141
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (216) 896-3000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Each Exchange on which Registered
Common Shares, $.50 par valuePHNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act: 
Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes      No  
Number of Common Shares outstanding at March 31, 2024: 128,540,990



PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

PARKER-HANNIFIN CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Net sales$5,074,356 $5,061,665 $14,742,791 $13,969,251 
Cost of sales3,279,650 3,340,764 9,478,961 9,373,032 
Selling, general and administrative expenses816,337 868,393 2,496,830 2,519,163 
Interest expense123,732 151,993 387,229 416,718 
Other income, net(65,406)(55,866)(228,872)(116,131)
Income before income taxes920,043 756,381 2,608,643 1,776,469 
Income taxes193,309 165,421 548,780 402,011 
Net income726,734 590,960 2,059,863 1,374,458 
Less: Noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries' earnings160 71 611 478 
Net income attributable to common shareholders$726,574 $590,889 $2,059,252 $1,373,980 
Earnings per share attributable to common shareholders:
Basic$5.65 $4.61 $16.03 $10.71 
Diluted$5.56 $4.54 $15.82 $10.58 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.



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PARKER-HANNIFIN CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Dollars in thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Net income$726,734 $590,960 $2,059,863 $1,374,458 
Less: Noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries' earnings160 71 611 478 
Net income attributable to common shareholders726,574 590,889 2,059,252 1,373,980 
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax
  Foreign currency translation adjustment(168,919)92,106 (119,216)145,997 
  Retirement benefits plan activity 1,369 (1,364)4,098 8,397 
    Other comprehensive (loss) income(167,550)90,742 (115,118)154,394 
Less: Other comprehensive (loss) income for noncontrolling interests(392)(299)384 (176)
Other comprehensive (loss) income attributable to common shareholders(167,158)91,041 (115,502)154,570 
Total comprehensive income attributable to common shareholders
$559,416 $681,930 $1,943,750 $1,528,550 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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PARKER-HANNIFIN CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
(Dollars in thousands)
(Unaudited)
March 31,
2024
June 30,
2023
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$405,484 $475,182 
Marketable securities and other investments9,968 8,390 
Trade accounts receivable, net2,913,357 2,827,297 
Non-trade and notes receivable310,355 309,167 
Inventories2,966,336 2,907,879 
Prepaid expenses and other337,055 306,314 
Total current assets6,942,555 6,834,229 
Property, plant and equipment7,033,187 6,865,545 
Less: Accumulated depreciation4,162,268 4,000,515 
Property, plant and equipment, net2,870,919 2,865,030 
Deferred income taxes72,808 81,429 
Investments and other assets1,150,784 1,104,576 
Intangible assets, net7,961,957 8,450,614 
Goodwill10,579,307 10,628,594 
Total assets$29,578,330 $29,964,472 
LIABILITIES
Current liabilities:
Notes payable and long-term debt payable within one year$4,080,759 $3,763,175 
Accounts payable, trade1,964,211 2,050,934 
Accrued payrolls and other compensation514,021 651,319 
Accrued domestic and foreign taxes358,061 374,571 
Other accrued liabilities1,077,318 895,371 
Total current liabilities7,994,370 7,735,370 
Long-term debt7,290,208 8,796,284 
Pensions and other postretirement benefits455,254 551,510 
Deferred income taxes1,528,529 1,649,674 
Other liabilities709,548 893,355 
Total liabilities17,977,909 19,626,193 
EQUITY
Shareholders’ equity:
Serial preferred stock, $.50 par value; authorized 3,000,000 shares; none issued
  
Common stock, $.50 par value; authorized 600,000,000 shares; issued 181,046,128 shares at March 31 and June 30
90,523 90,523 
Additional capital295,730 305,522 
Retained earnings18,529,559 17,041,502 
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss)(1,408,374)(1,292,872)
Treasury shares, at cost; 52,505,138 shares at March 31 and 52,613,046 shares at June 30
(5,916,586)(5,817,787)
Total shareholders’ equity11,590,852 10,326,888 
Noncontrolling interests9,569 11,391 
Total equity11,600,421 10,338,279 
Total liabilities and equity$29,578,330 $29,964,472 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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PARKER-HANNIFIN CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
(Dollars in thousands)
(Unaudited)
Nine Months Ended
 March 31,
 20242023
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net income$2,059,863 $1,374,458 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation257,700 234,649 
Amortization438,763 374,417 
Stock incentive plan compensation128,682 117,536 
Deferred income taxes(37,682)89,805 
Foreign currency transaction (gain) loss(27,034)54,927 
Loss (gain) on property, plant and equipment and intangible assets5,847 (1,270)
Gain on sale of businesses(23,667)(366,345)
Gain on marketable securities(55)(1,391)
Gain on investments(2,555)(4,341)
Other18,992 18,890 
Changes in assets and liabilities, net of effect of acquisitions and divestitures:
Accounts receivable, net(96,390)(110,317)
Inventories(69,426)(27,491)
Prepaid expenses and other(10,698)(64,350)
Other assets(67,354)(194,069)
Accounts payable, trade(78,452)118,756 
Accrued payrolls and other compensation(134,459)(19,357)
Accrued domestic and foreign taxes(13,123)36,208 
Other accrued liabilities23,380 141,891 
Pensions and other postretirement benefits(87,911)46,681 
Other liabilities(137,344)(24,393)
Net cash provided by operating activities2,147,077 1,794,894 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Acquisitions (net of cash of $89,704 in 2023)
 (7,146,110)
Capital expenditures(283,328)(272,603)
Proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment8,905 11,821 
Proceeds from sale of businesses75,561 471,720 
Purchases of marketable securities and other investments(10,091)(31,275)
Maturities and sales of marketable securities and other investments8,664 35,075 
Payments of deal-contingent forward contracts (1,405,418)
Other5,988 251,875 
Net cash used in investing activities(194,301)(8,084,915)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Proceeds from exercise of stock options3,196 2,820 
Payments for common shares(240,885)(202,731)
Acquisition of noncontrolling interests(2,883) 
(Payments for) proceeds from notes payable, net(941,135)258,458 
Proceeds from long-term borrowings12,173 2,011,949 
Payments for long-term borrowings(264,411)(1,363,596)
Financing fees paid (8,911)
Dividends paid(571,583)(513,232)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(2,005,528)184,757 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash(16,946)(7,781)
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(69,698)(6,113,045)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year475,182 6,647,876 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$405,484 $534,831 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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PARKER-HANNIFIN CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts or as otherwise noted)

As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms "Company", "Parker", "we" or "us" refer to Parker-Hannifin Corporation and its subsidiaries.
1. Management representation
In the opinion of the management of the Company, the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments (consisting of only normal recurring adjustments) necessary to present fairly the Company's financial position as of March 31, 2024, the results of operations for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 and cash flows for the nine months then ended. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Subsequent Events
The Company has evaluated subsequent events that occurred through the date these financial statements were issued. No subsequent events have occurred that required adjustment to or disclosure in these financial statements.
2. New accounting pronouncements
In December 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2023-09, "Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures," which enhances the disclosure requirements for income taxes primarily related to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid information. The amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. The amendment should be applied on a prospective basis. Retrospective application is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on the Company's disclosures.
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07, "Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures," which updates reportable segment disclosure requirements primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on the Company's disclosures.
In September 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-04, "Liabilities—Supplier Finance Programs (Subtopic 405-50): Disclosure of Supplier Finance Program Obligations," which requires a buyer in a supplier finance program to disclose information about the program’s nature, activity during the period, changes from period to period, and potential magnitude. To achieve that objective, the buyer should disclose qualitative and quantitative information about its supplier finance programs, including the outstanding amount under the program, the balance sheet presentation of the outstanding amount, and a rollforward of the obligations in the program. This ASU should be adopted retrospectively for each balance sheet period presented; however, the rollforward information should be provided prospectively. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years, except for the amendment on rollforward information, which is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted the guidance on July 1, 2023, except for the rollforward requirement, which becomes effective July 1, 2024. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
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3. Revenue recognition
Revenue is derived primarily from the sale of products in a variety of mobile, industrial and aerospace markets. A majority of the Company’s revenues are recognized at a point in time. However, a portion of the Company’s revenues are recognized over time.
Diversified Industrial Segment revenues by technology platform:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
2024202320242023
Motion Systems$942,667 $1,017,974 $2,802,947 $2,837,403 
Flow and Process Control1,185,622 1,298,204 3,489,483 3,675,928 
Filtration and Engineered Materials1,537,354 1,550,927 4,506,214 4,378,931 
Total$3,665,643 $3,867,105 $10,798,644 $10,892,262 
Aerospace Systems Segment revenues by primary market:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
2024202320242023
Commercial original equipment manufacturer ("OEM")$471,870 $398,502 $1,315,254 $1,045,850 
Commercial aftermarket482,477 381,883 1,311,445 938,129 
Military OEM260,818 244,451 787,196 649,179 
Military aftermarket193,548 169,724 530,252 443,831 
Total$1,408,713 $1,194,560 $3,944,147 $3,076,989 

Total Company revenues by geographic region based on the Company's selling operation's location:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
2024202320242023
North America$3,438,587 $3,364,157 $9,965,836 $9,278,815 
Europe1,026,035 1,054,157 2,915,334 2,750,159 
Asia Pacific554,991 590,017 1,693,316 1,777,550 
Latin America54,743 53,334 168,305 162,727 
Total$5,074,356 $5,061,665 $14,742,791 $13,969,251 
The majority of revenues from the Aerospace Systems Segment are generated from sales to customers within North America.
Contract balances
Contract assets and contract liabilities are reported on a contract-by-contract basis. Contract assets reflect revenue recognized and performance obligations satisfied in advance of customer billing. Contract liabilities relate to payments received in advance of the satisfaction of performance under the contract. Payments from customers are received based on the terms established in the contract with the customer.
- 7 -


Total contract assets and contract liabilities are as follows:
March 31,
2024
June 30,
2023
Contract assets, current (included within Prepaid expenses and other)$132,237 $123,705 
Contract assets, noncurrent (included within Investments and other assets)17,976 23,708 
Total contract assets150,213 147,413 
Contract liabilities, current (included within Other accrued liabilities)(211,777)(244,799)
Contract liabilities, noncurrent (included within Other liabilities)(72,306)(78,239)
Total contract liabilities(284,083)(323,038)
Net contract liabilities$(133,870)$(175,625)
Net contract liabilities at March 31, 2024 decreased from the June 30, 2023 amount primarily due to timing differences between when revenue was recognized and the receipt of advance payments. During the nine months ended March 31, 2024, approximately $169 million of revenue was recognized that was included in the contract liabilities at June 30, 2023.
Remaining performance obligations
Our backlog represents written firm orders from a customer to deliver products and, in the case of blanket purchase orders, only includes the portion of the order for which a schedule or release has been agreed to with the customer. We believe our backlog represents our unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied performance obligations. Backlog at March 31, 2024 was $10.8 billion, of which approximately 76 percent is expected to be recognized as revenue within the next 12 months and the balance thereafter.
4. Acquisitions and divestitures
Acquisitions
On September 12, 2022, we completed the acquisition (the "Acquisition") of all the outstanding ordinary shares of Meggitt plc ("Meggitt") for 800 pence per share, resulting in an aggregate cash purchase price of $7.2 billion, including the assumption of debt.
Meggitt is a leader in design, manufacturing and aftermarket support of technologically differentiated systems and equipment in aerospace, defense and selected energy markets with annual sales of approximately $2.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021. For segment reporting purposes, approximately 82 percent of Meggitt's sales are included in the Aerospace Systems Segment, while the remaining 18 percent are included in the Diversified Industrial Segment.
- 8 -


Assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recognized at their respective fair values as of the Acquisition date. The process of estimating the fair values of certain tangible assets, identifiable intangible assets and assumed liabilities requires the use of judgment in determining the appropriate assumptions and estimates. During the measurement period which ended in September 2023, adjustments did not have a material impact on the Consolidated Statement of Income. The following table presents the final estimated fair values of Meggitt's assets acquired and liabilities assumed on the Acquisition date.

June 30, 2023 (previously reported)Measurement Period AdjustmentsSeptember 12, 2022 (Final)
Assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$89,704 $ $89,704 
Accounts receivable409,642 1,181 410,823 
Inventories739,304 13,580 752,884 
Prepaid expenses and other102,032 20,673 122,705 
Property, plant and equipment658,997 (1,428)657,569 
Deferred income taxes34,198 (18,730)15,468 
Other assets180,991 (647)180,344 
Intangible assets5,679,200 (28,000)5,651,200 
Goodwill2,789,080 10,891 2,799,971 
Total assets acquired$10,683,148 $(2,480)$10,680,668 
Liabilities:
Notes payable and long-term debt payable within one year$308,176 $ $308,176 
Accounts payable, trade219,842 (705)219,137 
Accrued payrolls and other compensation87,074 (1)87,073 
Accrued domestic and foreign taxes21,068 (818)20,250 
Other accrued liabilities322,040 158,137 480,177 
Long-term debt711,703  711,703 
Pensions and other postretirement benefits99,553 (2,028)97,525 
Deferred income taxes1,259,417 (19,700)1,239,717 
Other liabilities418,461 (137,365)281,096 
Total liabilities assumed3,447,334 (2,480)3,444,854 
Net assets acquired$7,235,814 $ $7,235,814 
Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the purchase price over the net assets acquired and represents cost synergies and enhancements to our existing technologies. For tax purposes, Meggitt's goodwill is not deductible. Based upon a final acquisition valuation, we acquired $4.2 billion of customer-related intangible assets, $1.1 billion of technology and $303 million of trade names, each with weighted-average estimated useful lives of 21, 22, and 18 years, respectively. These intangible assets were valued using the income approach, which includes significant assumptions around future revenue growth, earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, royalty rates and discount rates. Such assumptions are classified as level 3 inputs within the fair value hierarchy.
The following table presents unaudited pro forma information for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2023 as if the Acquisition had occurred on July 1, 2021.
(Unaudited)Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31, 2023March 31, 2023
Net sales$5,061,665 $14,350,581 
Net income attributable to common shareholders612,049 1,244,907 
The historical consolidated financial information of Parker and Meggitt has been adjusted in the pro forma information in the table above to give effect to events that are directly attributable to the Acquisition and factually supportable. To reflect the occurrence of the Acquisition on July 1, 2021, the unaudited pro forma information includes adjustments for the amortization of the step-up of inventory to fair value and incremental depreciation and amortization expense resulting from the fair value
- 9 -


adjustments to property, plant and equipment and intangible assets. These adjustments were based upon a preliminary purchase price allocation. Additionally, adjustments to financing costs and income tax expense were also made to reflect the capital structure and anticipated effective tax rate of the combined entity. Additionally, the pro forma information includes adjustments for nonrecurring transactions directly related to the Acquisition, including the gain on the divestiture of the aircraft wheel and brake business, loss on deal-contingent forward contracts, and transaction costs. These non-recurring adjustments totaled $(1) million and $197 million during the three and nine months ended March 31, 2023, respectively. The resulting pro forma amounts are not necessarily indicative of the results that would have been obtained if the Acquisition had occurred as of the beginning of the period presented or that may occur in the future, and do not reflect future synergies, integration costs or other such costs or savings.
Divestitures
During December 2023, we divested our Filter Resources business, which was part of the Diversified Industrial Segment, for proceeds of $37 million. The resulting pre-tax gain of $12 million is included in other income, net in the Consolidated Statement of Income. The operating results and net assets of the Filter Resources business were immaterial to the Company's consolidated results of operations and financial position.
During September 2023, we divested the MicroStrain sensing systems business, which was part of the Diversified Industrial Segment, for proceeds of $37 million. The resulting pre-tax gain of $13 million is included in other income, net in the Consolidated Statement of Income. The operating results and net assets of the MicroStrain sensing systems business were immaterial to the Company's consolidated results of operations and financial position.
During March 2023, we divested a French aerospace business, which was part of the Aerospace Systems Segment, for proceeds of $27 million. The resulting pre-tax loss of $12 million is included in other income, net in the Consolidated Statement of Income. The operating results and net assets of the French aerospace business were immaterial to the Company's consolidated results of operations and financial position.
During September 2022, we divested our aircraft wheel and brake business, which was part of the Aerospace Systems Segment, for proceeds of $443 million. The resulting pre-tax gain of $374 million is included in other income, net in the Consolidated Statement of Income. The operating results and net assets of the aircraft wheel and brake business were immaterial to the Company's consolidated results of operations and financial position.
5. Earnings per share
The following table presents a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of basic and diluted earnings per share for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Numerator:
Net income attributable to common shareholders$726,574 $590,889 $2,059,252 $1,373,980 
Denominator:
Basic - weighted average common shares128,502,829 128,293,039 128,467,209 128,343,788 
Increase in weighted average common shares from dilutive effect of equity-based awards2,090,197 1,858,448 1,702,122 1,488,201 
Diluted - weighted average common shares, assuming exercise of equity-based awards130,593,026 130,151,487 130,169,331 129,831,989 
Basic earnings per share$5.65 $4.61 $16.03 $10.71 
Diluted earnings per share$5.56 $4.54 $15.82 $10.58 
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, 113,956 and 124,025 common shares subject to equity-based awards, respectively, were excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share because the effect of their exercise would be anti-dilutive.
For the nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, 400,506 and 1,011,006 common shares subject to equity-based awards, respectively, were excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share because the effect of their exercise would be anti-dilutive.
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6. Share repurchase program
The Company has a program to repurchase its common shares. On October 22, 2014, the Board of Directors of the Company approved an increase in the overall number of shares authorized for repurchase under the program so that, beginning on such date, the aggregate number of shares authorized for repurchase was 35 million. There is no limitation on the number of shares that can be repurchased in a fiscal year. There is no expiration date for this program. Repurchases may be funded primarily from operating cash flows and commercial paper borrowings and the shares are initially held as treasury shares. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we repurchased 97,900 shares at an average price, including commissions, of $502.22 per share. During the nine months ended March 31, 2024, we repurchased 343,539 shares at an average price, including commissions, of $434.21 per share.
7. Trade accounts receivable, net
Trade accounts receivable are initially recorded at their net collectible amount and are generally recorded at the time the revenue from the sales transaction is recorded. We evaluate the collectibility of our receivables based on historical experience and current and forecasted economic conditions based on management's judgment. Additionally, receivables are written off to bad debt when management makes a final determination of uncollectibility. Allowance for credit losses was $21 million and $32 million at March 31, 2024 and June 30, 2023, respectively.
8. Non-trade and notes receivable
The non-trade and notes receivable caption in the Consolidated Balance Sheet is comprised of the following components:
March 31,
2024
June 30,
2023
Notes receivable$87,475 $102,288 
Accounts receivable, other222,880 206,879 
Total$310,355 $309,167 

9. Inventories
The inventories caption in the Consolidated Balance Sheet is comprised of the following components:
March 31,
2024
June 30,
2023
Finished products$821,422 $794,128 
Work in process1,526,113 1,488,665 
Raw materials618,801 625,086 
Total$2,966,336 $2,907,879 

10. Supply chain financing
We have supply chain financing ("SCF") programs with financial intermediaries, which provide certain suppliers the option to be paid by the financial intermediaries earlier than the due date on the applicable invoice. We are not a party to the agreements between the participating financial intermediaries and the suppliers in connection with the programs. The range of payment terms we negotiate with our suppliers is consistent, irrespective of whether a supplier participates in the SCF programs. We do not reimburse suppliers for any costs they incur for participation in the SCF programs and their participation is voluntary.
Amounts due to our suppliers that elected to participate in the SCF programs are included in accounts payable, trade on the Consolidated Balance Sheet and payments made under the SCF programs are included within operating activities on the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. Accounts payable, trade included approximately $103 million and $85 million payable to suppliers who have elected to participate in the SCF programs as of March 31, 2024 and June 30, 2023, respectively. The amounts settled through the SCF programs and paid to the participating financial intermediaries totaled $221 million and $184 million during the first nine months of fiscal 2024 and 2023, respectively.
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11. Business realignment and acquisition integration charges
We incurred business realignment and acquisition integration charges in the first nine months of fiscal 2024 and 2023, which included severance costs related to actions taken under the Company's simplification initiative aimed at reducing organizational and process complexity, as well as plant closures. In fiscal 2024 and 2023, a majority of the business realignment charges were incurred in Europe. We believe the realignment actions will positively impact future results of operations, but will not have a material effect on liquidity and sources and uses of capital.
Business realignment charges by business segment are as follows:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Diversified Industrial$6,953 $8,075 $32,877 $14,464 
Aerospace Systems(12)166 318 3,016 
Other (income) expense, net1,527  2,719  
Reductions to our workforce made in connection with such business realignment charges by business segment are as follows:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Diversified Industrial143 282 658 499 
Aerospace Systems(1)14 1 30 
The business realignment charges are presented in the Consolidated Statement of Income as follows:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Cost of sales$3,014 $5,033 $18,465 $10,746 
Selling, general and administrative expenses3,927 3,208 14,730 6,734 
Other income, net1,527  2,719  
During the first nine months of fiscal 2024, approximately $33 million in payments were made relating to business realignment charges. Remaining payments related to business realignment actions of approximately $15 million, a majority of which are expected to be paid by June 30, 2024, are primarily reflected within the other accrued liabilities caption in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Additional charges may be recognized in future periods related to the business realignment actions described above, the timing and amount of which are not known at this time.
We also incurred the following acquisition integration charges:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Diversified Industrial$1,292 $5,395 $3,302 $7,276 
Aerospace Systems11,964 25,849 26,374 69,377 
Charges incurred in fiscal 2024 and 2023 relate to the Acquisition. In both fiscal 2024 and 2023, these charges were primarily included in selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A") within the Consolidated Statement of Income.
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12. Equity

Changes in equity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 are as follows:
Common StockAdditional CapitalRetained EarningsAccumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss)Treasury SharesNoncontrolling
Interests
Total Equity
Balance at December 31, 2023$90,523 $352,817 $17,993,453 $(1,241,216)$(5,892,999)$9,801 $11,312,379 
Net income726,574 160 726,734 
Other comprehensive (loss)(167,158)(392)(167,550)
Dividends paid ($1.48 per share)
(190,468)(190,468)
Stock incentive plan activity(57,087)25,579 (31,508)
Shares purchased at cost(49,166)(49,166)
Balance at March 31, 2024$90,523 $295,730 $18,529,559 $(1,408,374)$(5,916,586)$9,569 $11,600,421 

Common StockAdditional CapitalRetained EarningsAccumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss)Treasury SharesNoncontrolling
Interests
Total Equity
Balance at December 31, 2022$90,523 $377,871 $16,102,883 $(1,479,669)$(5,769,228)$12,096 $9,334,476 
Net income590,889 71 590,960 
Other comprehensive income (loss)91,041 (299)90,742 
Dividends paid ($1.33 per share)
(170,872)(170,872)
Stock incentive plan activity(22,117)19,976 (2,141)
Shares purchased at cost(50,000)(50,000)
Balance at March 31, 2023$90,523 $355,754 $16,522,900 $(1,388,628)$(5,799,252)$11,868 $9,793,165 

Changes in equity for the nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 are as follows:

Common StockAdditional CapitalRetained EarningsAccumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss)Treasury SharesNoncontrolling
Interests
Total Equity
Balance at June 30, 2023$90,523 $305,522 $17,041,502 $(1,292,872)$(5,817,787)$11,391 $10,338,279 
Net income2,059,252 611 2,059,863 
Other comprehensive (loss) income(115,502)384 (115,118)
Dividends paid ($4.44 per share)
(571,195)(388)(571,583)
Stock incentive plan activity(10,207)50,368 40,161 
Acquisition activity415 (2,429)(2,014)
Shares purchased at cost(149,167)(149,167)
Balance at March 31, 2024$90,523 $295,730 $18,529,559 $(1,408,374)$(5,916,586)$9,569 $11,600,421 

Common StockAdditional CapitalRetained EarningsAccumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss)Treasury SharesNoncontrolling
Interests
Total Equity
Balance at June 30, 2022$90,523 $327,307 $15,661,808 $(1,543,198)$(5,688,429)$11,909 $8,859,920 
Net income1,373,980 478 1,374,458 
Other comprehensive income (loss)154,570 (176)154,394 
Dividends paid ($3.99 per share)
(512,888)(343)(513,231)
Stock incentive plan activity28,447 39,177 67,624 
Shares purchased at cost(150,000)(150,000)
Balance at March 31, 2023$90,523 $355,754 $16,522,900 $(1,388,628)$(5,799,252)$11,868 $9,793,165 

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Changes in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) in shareholders' equity by component for the nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 are as follows:
 Foreign Currency Translation AdjustmentRetirement Benefit PlansTotal
Balance at June 30, 2023$(962,044)$(330,828)$(1,292,872)
Other comprehensive income before reclassifications(119,600) (119,600)
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive (loss) 4,098 4,098 
Balance at March 31, 2024$(1,081,644)$(326,730)$(1,408,374)


 Foreign Currency Translation AdjustmentRetirement Benefit PlansTotal
Balance at June 30, 2022$(1,149,071)$(394,127)$(1,543,198)
Other comprehensive income before reclassifications146,173  146,173 
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive (loss) 8,397 8,397 
Balance at March 31, 2023$(1,002,898)$(385,730)$(1,388,628)


Significant reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive (loss) in shareholders' equity for the three and nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 are as follows:
Details about Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) ComponentsIncome (Expense) Reclassified from Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss)Consolidated Statement of Income Classification
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31, 2024March 31, 2024
Retirement benefit plans
Amortization of prior service cost and initial net obligation
$(319)$(955)Other income, net
Recognized actuarial loss(1,555)(4,656)Other income, net
Total before tax(1,874)(5,611)
Tax benefit505 1,513 
Net of tax$(1,369)$(4,098)

Details about Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) ComponentsIncome (Expense) Reclassified from Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss)Consolidated Statement of Income Classification
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31, 2023March 31, 2023
Retirement benefit plans
Amortization of prior service cost and initial net obligation$(227)$(679)Other income, net
Recognized actuarial gain (loss)1,057 (11,422)Other income, net
Divestiture activity587 587 Other income, net
Total before tax1,417 (11,514)
Tax benefit(53)3,117 
Net of tax$1,364 $(8,397)

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13. Goodwill and intangible assets
The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill for the nine months ended March 31, 2024 are as follows:
Diversified Industrial
Segment
Aerospace
Systems
Segment
Total
Balance at June 30, 2023$7,682,755 $2,945,839 $10,628,594 
Acquisition1,113 9,778 10,891 
Divestitures(25,387) (25,387)
Foreign currency translation(29,859)(4,932)(34,791)
Balance at March 31, 2024$7,628,622 $2,950,685 $10,579,307 
Acquisition represents goodwill resulting from the purchase price allocation for the Acquisition during the measurement period. Divestitures represents goodwill associated with the sale of the businesses. Refer to Note 4 for further discussion.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level annually and between annual tests whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a reporting unit may exceed its fair value. At December 31, 2023, the Company performed its fiscal 2024 annual goodwill impairment test, which indicated no impairment existed.
Intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over their legal or estimated useful lives. The following summarizes the gross carrying value and accumulated amortization for each major category of intangible assets:
 March 31, 2024June 30, 2023
 Gross Carrying
Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Gross Carrying
Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Patents and technology$2,117,511 $426,869 $2,128,847 $352,040 
Trade names1,042,091 428,015 1,047,678 390,737 
Customer relationships and other8,054,085 2,396,846 8,109,063 2,092,197 
Total$11,213,687 $3,251,730 $11,285,588 $2,834,974 
Total intangible asset amortization expense for the nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was $439 million and $374 million, respectively. The estimated amortization expense for the five years ending June 30, 2024 through 2028 is $580 million, $551 million, $546 million, $541 million and $531 million, respectively.
Intangible assets are evaluated for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the undiscounted net cash flows to be generated by their use over their expected useful lives and eventual disposition may be less than their net carrying value. No material intangible asset impairments occurred during the nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
14. Retirement benefits
Net pension (benefit) expense recognized included the following components:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Service cost$12,646 $14,599 $38,593 $42,534 
Interest cost67,644 59,021 202,077 166,456 
Expected return on plan assets(88,381)(80,137)(264,862)(228,695)
Amortization of prior service cost319 227 955 679 
Amortization of net actuarial loss (gain)1,992 (657)5,967 12,625 
Net pension (benefit) expense$(5,780)$(6,947)$(17,270)$(6,401)
We recognized $0.5 million and $0.5 million in expense related to other postretirement benefits during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. During the nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, we recognized $1.6 million and $1.2 million, respectively, in expense related to other postretirement benefits. Components of retirement benefits expense, other than service cost, are included in other income, net in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
- 15 -


15. Debt
Our debt portfolio includes a term loan facility (the “Term Loan Facility”). Interest rates reset every one, three or six months at the discretion of the Company. At March 31, 2024, the Term Loan Facility had an interest rate of Secured Overnight Financing Rate plus 122.5 bps. Additionally, the provisions of the Term Loan Facility allow for prepayments at the Company's discretion. During the nine months ended March 31, 2024, we made principal payments totaling $250 million related to the Term Loan Facility. Refer to the Company’s 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion.
Commercial paper notes outstanding at March 31, 2024 and June 30, 2023 were $0.8 billion and $1.8 billion, respectively.
Based on the Company’s rating level at March 31, 2024, the most restrictive financial covenant provides that the ratio of debt to debt-shareholders' equity cannot exceed 0.65 to 1.0. At March 31, 2024, our debt to debt-shareholders' equity ratio was 0.50 to 1.0. We are in compliance, and expect to remain in compliance, with all covenants set forth in the credit agreement and indentures governing certain debt securities.
16. Income taxes
We file income tax returns in the United States and in various foreign jurisdictions. In the normal course of business, we are subject to examination by taxing authorities throughout the world. We are open to assessment on our U.S. federal income tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service for fiscal years after 2013, and our state and local returns for fiscal years after 2016. We are also open to assessment for significant foreign jurisdictions for fiscal years after 2011. Unrecognized tax benefits reflect the difference between positions taken or expected to be taken on income tax returns and the amounts reflected in the financial statements.
As of March 31, 2024, we had gross unrecognized tax benefits of $99 million, all of which, if recognized, would impact the effective tax rate. The accrued interest and accrued penalties related to the gross unrecognized tax benefits, excluded from the amount above, is $26 million and $2 million, respectively. It is reasonably possible that within the next 12 months the amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits could be reduced by up to approximately $40 million as a result of the revaluation of existing uncertain tax positions arising from developments in the examination process or the closure of tax statutes. Any increase in the amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits within the next 12 months is expected to be insignificant.
17. Financial instruments
Our financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and other investments, accounts receivable and long-term investments, as well as obligations under accounts payable, trade, notes payable and long-term debt. Due to their short-term nature, the carrying values for cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, trade and notes payable approximate fair value.
The carrying value of long-term debt, which excludes the impact of net unamortized debt issuance costs, and estimated fair value of long-term debt are as follows:
March 31,
2024
June 30,
2023
Carrying value of long-term debt $10,585,086 $10,845,359 
Estimated fair value of long-term debt 10,086,962 10,221,563 
The fair value of long-term debt is classified within level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
We utilize derivative and non-derivative financial instruments, including forward exchange contracts, cross-currency swap contracts and certain foreign currency denominated debt designated as net investment hedges, to manage foreign currency transaction and translation risk. The derivative financial instrument contracts are with major investment grade financial institutions, and we do not anticipate any material non-performance by any of the counterparties. We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes.
The Company’s €700 million aggregate principal amount of Senior Notes due 2025 have been designated as a hedge of the Company’s net investment in certain foreign subsidiaries. The translation of the Senior Notes due 2025 into U.S. dollars is recorded in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) and remains there until the underlying net investment is sold or substantially liquidated.
- 16 -


Derivative financial instruments are recognized on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as either assets or liabilities and are measured at fair value.
The location and fair value of derivative financial instruments reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheet are as follows:
Balance Sheet CaptionMarch 31,
2024
June 30,
2023
Net investment hedges
Cross-currency swap contractsInvestments and other assets$8,005 $21,578 
Cross-currency swap contractsOther liabilities1,584  
Other derivative contracts
Forward exchange contractsNon-trade and notes receivable6,269  
Forward exchange contractsOther accrued liabilities24  
The cross-currency swap and forward exchange contracts are reflected on a gross basis in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. We have not entered into any master netting arrangements.
The €69 million, €290 million and ¥2.1 billion of cross-currency swap contracts have been designated as hedging instruments. The forward exchange contracts have not been designated as hedging instruments and are considered to be economic hedges of forecasted transactions.
The forward exchange, costless collar, and deal-contingent forward contracts, as well as cross-currency swap contracts acquired as part of the Acquisition, are adjusted to fair value by recording gains and losses in other income, net in the Consolidated Statement of Income.
Derivatives designated as hedges are adjusted to fair value by recording gains and losses through accumulated other comprehensive (loss) on the Consolidated Balance Sheet until the hedged item is recognized in earnings. We assess the effectiveness of the €69 million, €290 million and ¥2.1 billion of cross-currency swap contracts designated as hedging instruments using the spot method. Under this method, the periodic interest settlements are recognized directly in earnings through interest expense.

Gains (losses) on derivative financial instruments that were recorded in the Consolidated Statement of Income are as follows:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
2024202320242023
Deal-contingent forward contracts$ $ $ $(389,992)
Forward exchange contracts9,192 7,378 7,379 (7,425)
Costless collar contracts 4,308  9,632 
Cross-currency swap contracts (2,976) (18,739)

Gains (losses) on derivative and non-derivative financial instruments that were recorded in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) on the Consolidated Balance Sheet are as follows:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
2024202320242023
Cross-currency swap contracts$2,519 $16,085 $(12,798)$17,196 
Foreign currency denominated debt13,237 (7,391)6,536 (18,880)

During the nine months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the periodic interest settlements related to the cross-currency swap contracts were not material.

- 17 -


A summary of financial assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring basis at March 31, 2024 and June 30, 2023 are as follows:
Quoted PricesSignificant OtherSignificant
FairIn ActiveObservableUnobservable
Value atMarketsInputsInputs
March 31, 2024(Level 1)(Level 2)(Level 3)
Assets:
Derivatives$14,274 $ $14,274 $ 
Liabilities:
Derivatives1,608  1,608  

Quoted PricesSignificant OtherSignificant
FairIn ActiveObservableUnobservable
Value atMarketsInputsInputs
June 30, 2023(Level 1)(Level 2)(Level 3)
Assets:
Derivatives$21,578 $ $21,578 $ 
Derivatives consist of forward exchange and cross-currency swap contracts, the fair values of which are calculated using market observable inputs including both spot and forward prices for the same underlying currencies. The calculation of the fair value of the cross-currency swap contracts also utilizes a present value cash flow model.
The primary objective for all derivatives is to manage foreign currency transaction and translation risk.
There are no other financial assets or financial liabilities that are marked to market on a recurring basis.

18. Business segment information
The Company operates in two reportable business segments: Diversified Industrial and Aerospace Systems. Both segments utilize eight core technologies, including hydraulics, pneumatics, electromechanical, filtration, fluid and gas handling, process control, engineered materials and climate control, to drive superior customer problem solving and value creation.
Diversified Industrial - This segment produces a broad range of motion-control and fluid systems and components used in all kinds of manufacturing, packaging, processing, transportation, mobile construction, refrigeration and air conditioning, agricultural, and military machinery and equipment and has significant international operations. Sales are made directly to major OEMs and through a broad distribution network to smaller OEMs and the aftermarket.
Aerospace Systems - This segment designs and manufactures products and provides aftermarket support for commercial and regional transport, business jet, military, and helicopter markets. The Aerospace Systems Segment provides a full range of systems and components for hydraulic, pneumatic, fuel, oil, actuation, sensing, braking, thermal management, and electric power applications.
- 18 -


Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 March 31,March 31,
 2024202320242023
Net sales
Diversified Industrial:
North America$2,231,478 $2,342,590 $6,571,587 $6,615,035 
International1,434,165 1,524,515 4,227,057 4,277,227 
Aerospace Systems1,408,713 1,194,560 3,944,147 3,076,989 
Total net sales$5,074,356 $5,061,665 $14,742,791 $13,969,251 
Segment operating income
Diversified Industrial:
North America$490,452 $489,349 $1,458,355 $1,362,256 
International309,759 329,498 900,944 908,958 
Aerospace Systems289,339 133,905 778,711 234,849 
Total segment operating income1,089,550 952,752 3,138,010 2,506,063 
Corporate general and administrative expenses56,782 45,780 162,340 146,341 
Income before interest expense and other (income) expense, net1,032,768 906,972 2,975,670 2,359,722 
Interest expense123,732 151,993 387,229 416,718 
Other (income) expense, net(11,007)(1,402)(20,202)166,535 
Income before income taxes$920,043 $756,381 $2,608,643 $1,776,469 
    



- 19 -


        

PARKER-HANNIFIN CORPORATION
FORM 10-Q
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE THREE AND NINE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, 2024
AND COMPARABLE PERIODS ENDED MARCH 31, 2023

OVERVIEW
The Company is a global leader in motion and control technologies. For more than a century, the Company has engineered the success of its customers in a wide range of diversified industrial and aerospace markets.

By aligning around our purpose, Enabling Engineering Breakthroughs that Lead to a Better Tomorrow, Parker is better positioned for the challenges and opportunities of tomorrow.

The Win Strategy 3.0 is Parker's business system that defines the goals and initiatives that create responsible, sustainable growth and enable Parker's long-term success. It works with our purpose, which is a foundational element of The Win Strategy, to engage team members and create responsible and sustainable growth. Our shared values shape our culture and our interactions with stakeholders and the communities in which we operate and live.

We believe many opportunities for profitable growth are available. The Company intends to focus primarily on business opportunities in the areas of energy, water, food, environment, defense, life sciences, infrastructure and transportation. We believe we can meet our strategic objectives by:

serving the customer and continuously enhancing its experience with the Company;
successfully executing The Win Strategy initiatives relating to engaged people, premier customer experience, profitable growth and financial performance;
maintaining a decentralized division and sales company structure;
fostering a safety-first and entrepreneurial culture;
engineering innovative systems and products to provide superior customer value through improved service, efficiency and productivity;
delivering products, systems and services that have demonstrable savings to customers and are priced by the value they deliver;
enabling a sustainable future by providing innovative technology solutions that make our world safer, smarter and cleaner and operating responsibly by minimizing our environmental impact and conserving natural resources;
acquiring strategic businesses;
organizing around targeted regions, technologies and markets;
driving efficiency by implementing lean enterprise principles; and
creating a culture of empowerment through our values, inclusion and diversity, accountability and teamwork.

Our order rates provide a near-term perspective of the Company’s outlook particularly when viewed in the context of prior and future order rates. The Company publishes its order rates on a quarterly basis. The lead time between the time an order is received and revenue is realized generally ranges from one day to 12 weeks for mobile and industrial orders and from one day to 18 months for aerospace orders.

We continue to manage the challenging supply chain environment through our "local for local" manufacturing strategy, ongoing supplier management process, and broadened supply base. We continue to monitor inflation and manage its impact through a variety of cost and pricing measures, including continuous improvement and lean initiatives. Additionally, we strategically manage our workforce and discretionary spending. At the same time, we are appropriately addressing the ongoing needs of our business so that we continue to serve our customers.

- 20 -


Over the long term, the extent to which our business and results of operations will be impacted by economic and political uncertainty, geopolitical risks and public health crises depends on future developments that remain uncertain. We will continue to monitor the global environment and manage our business with the goal to minimize unfavorable impacts on operations and financial results.
The discussion below is structured to separately discuss the Consolidated Statement of Income, Business Segment Information, and Liquidity and Capital Resources. As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms "Company", "Parker", "we" or "us" refer to Parker-Hannifin Corporation and its subsidiaries.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
 March 31,March 31,
(dollars in millions)2024202320242023
Net sales$5,074 $5,062 $14,743 $13,969 
Gross profit margin35.4 %34.0 %35.7 %32.9 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses$816 $868 $2,497 $2,519 
Selling, general and administrative expenses, as a percent of sales
16.1 %17.2 %16.9 %18.0 %
Interest expense$124 $152 $387 $417 
Other income, net$(65)$(56)$(229)$(116)
Effective tax rate21.0 %21.9 %21.0 %22.6 %
Net income$727 $591 $2,060 $1,374 
Net income, as a percent of sales14.3 %11.7 %14.0 %9.8 %
Net sales increased for the current-year quarter due to higher sales in the Aerospace Systems Segment, partially offset by lower sales in the Diversified Industrial Segment. The effect of currency exchange rate changes decreased net sales during the current-year quarter by approximately $31 million. The change was driven by a decrease of approximately $37 million in the Diversified Industrial Segment, partially offset by an increase of approximately $6 million within the Aerospace Systems Segment. The impact of divestiture activity decreased sales by approximately $16 million during the current-year quarter.
Net sales increased for the first nine months of fiscal 2024 due to higher sales in the Aerospace Systems Segment, partially offset by lower sales in the Diversified Industrial Segment. The acquisition (the "Acquisition") of Meggitt plc ("Meggitt") increased sales by approximately $501 million during the first nine months of fiscal 2024. The effect of currency exchange rate changes increased net sales during the first nine months of fiscal 2024 by approximately $33 million, of which $19 million and $14 million were attributable to the Aerospace Systems and Diversified Industrial Segments, respectively. The impact of divestiture activity decreased sales by approximately $54 million during the first nine months of fiscal 2024.
Gross profit margin (calculated as net sales minus cost of sales, divided by net sales) increased in both the current-year quarter and first nine months of fiscal 2024 due to higher margins in both segments resulting from price increases, favorable product mix, moderating material costs, cost containment initiatives and operational efficiencies. In addition, cost of sales in the prior-year quarter and first nine months of fiscal 2023 included $38 million and $168 million, respectively, of amortization expense related to the step-up in inventory to fair value resulting from the Acquisition.
Cost of sales also included business realignment and acquisition integration charges of $4 million and $9 million for the current and prior-year quarter, respectively, and $21 million and $18 million for the first nine months of fiscal 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A") decreased in the current-year quarter due to lower intangible asset amortization and research and development expenses. SG&A decreased during the first nine months of fiscal 2024 primarily due to a decrease in acquisition related expenses of $112 million, partially offset by higher intangible asset amortization and stock-based compensation expense, as well as an increase in general administrative expenses resulting from the Acquisition. In both the current-year quarter and first nine months of fiscal 2024, SG&A benefited from savings related to prior-year restructuring and acquisition-integration activities.
SG&A also included business realignment and acquisition integration charges of $16 million and $31 million for the current and prior-year quarter, respectively, and $42 million and $76 million for the first nine months of fiscal 2024 and 2023, respectively.
- 21 -


Interest expense decreased during the current-year quarter and the first nine months of fiscal 2024 primarily due to lower average debt outstanding and lower average interest rates.
Other income, net included the following:
Three Months EndedNine Months Ended
March 31,March 31,
(dollars in millions)2024202320242023
Expense (income)
Foreign currency transaction (gain) loss$(11)$(4)$(27)$55 
Income related to equity method investments(39)(35)(114)(89)
Non-service components of retirement benefit cost(18)(21)(53)(48)
Loss (gain) on disposal of assets and divestitures12 (18)(368)
Interest income(3)(7)(8)(39)
Loss on deal-contingent forward contracts— — — 390 
Other items, net(1)(9)(17)
$